In recent years, there has been an increasing trend toward sub-specialization. In order to become an orthopaedic surgeon, for instance, one completes 4 years of medical school, followed by a 5 to 6 year residency program. In the past, most surgeons would then enter practice as a “generalist” and treat conditions all over the body such as foot problems, hand problems, hip problems, and shoulder problems.
Most people have heard of the rotator cuff. The rotator cuff is group of 4 shoulder muscles (subscapularis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and teres minor) that surround the ball and socket (glenohumeral) joint (Figure 1). The rotator cuff helps the shoulder move and provides stability to the ball and socket joint.